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Physician Assistant Studies

Citing your Sources

In the PA field, the most commonly used citation styles are the APA Style (American Psychological Association), the AMA Style (American Medical Association), or Vancouver Style (also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals).

When writing a research paper it is important to properly cite your resources. This online guide will help you with the writing of your research.

Consider using a citation management software, such as Endnote, to simplify the process of collecting, organizing, and formatting your citations. The Libraries offers group instruction or individual consultation for EndNote.


EndNote is a desktop software designed to help store and organize bibliographic references in the "libraries" (collections) on user's own computer equipment. Users can create separate bibliographies or insert citations from their libraries into papers they are writing by using the "cite while you write" feature. Users can also enter references into the libraries manually or download them from online databases.

*USD users can download EndNote Desktop for free.

AMA Style

APA Style

 The most recent edition of the APA Publication Manual can be found in the Reference area of the University Libraries.

Vancouver Style

Vancouver Style is used widely to cite biomedical information. It was originally set forth in 1978 by a group of editors from major biomedical journals who met in Vancouver, British Columbia—which is why it is called Vancouver Style. The style is recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in the publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

The rules for using the style can be found in the following free ebook available from the PubMed bookshelf: 

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