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Dental Hygiene

Please visit the website for the University of South Dakota's Department of Dental Hygiene for more information about this program.

Citation and Writing Help                red line

In the allied health fields, the most popular citation style is the APA Style (American Psychological Association). When writing a research paper it is important to properly cite your resources. This online guide will help you with the writing of your research.

Consider using a citation management software, such as EndNote, to simplify the process of collecting, organizing, and formatting your citations. The Libraries offers group instruction or individual consultation for EndNote

Visit the Writing Center for help in writing and revising your work.

8.10 Author-Date Citation System

  • In this system, each work used in a paper has two parts
    • 1. An in-text citation
      • This appears in the body and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication
      • Do not include suffixes, such as "Junior". If there is no author, use the source's title in its place
      • If there is no year, use "n.d." in its place. If it is accepted for publication but has not yet been published, write "in press"
    • 2. A corresponding reference list entry
      • This includes the author, date, title, and source of the work, enabling readers to identify and retrieve the work

8.11 Parenthetical and Narrative Citations

Parenthetical citation

  •  Both the author and the date, separated by a comma, appear in parenthesis for a parenthetical citation. It can appear within or at the end of a sentence. When it is at the end of the sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis 
    • Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert-consensus on an isue (Koehler, 2016).
  • If other text appears within the parenthetical citation, use commas around the years
    • (see Koehler, 2016, for more detail)
  • When the text and a citation appear together in parentheses, usee a semicolon to separate the citation from the text; do not use parentheses within parentheses
    • (e.g., falsely balanced news coverage; Koehler, 2016)

Narrative Citation

  • The author appears in the running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name for a narrative citation
    • Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage
  • In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, do not use parentheses
    • In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage

 

Source: American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: the official guide to APA style (7th ed): American Psychological Association.

 

Reference Example Source/Catalog Record In-Text Citation
1 author Mosby's comprehensive review of dental hygiene (Darby, 2012). OR Darby (2012) states
2 authors Perceptions of dental hygiene Master's Degree learners
about dental hygiene Doctoral Education
(Tumath & Walsh, 2015). OR
Tumath and Walsh (2015) notes
3 or more authors Psychosocial correlates of oral hygiene behaviour in people
aged 9 to 19- A systematic review with meta-analysis
(Scheerman et al., 2016). OR
Scheerman et al. (2016) recommends

 

9.25 Periodical Sources

  • Write out the authors, order the authors as they appear in the article. Write as AuthorLastName, AuthorInitial(s)
    • Example: John Roberts as Roberts, J.
  • Write out the title, only capitalizing the first letter of the title
    • Exception: If there is a colon :, the first word following it should be capitalized
  • Provide the periodical title, volume number, issue number, and page range
    • Capitalize the title of a periodical, italicize it and place a non-italicized comma after it
    • Reproduce the periodical title as shown on the cited work
      • Example: PLOS One or JAMA Pediatrics
    • Italicize the volume number
    • Place the issue number after the volume number, in parenthesis. Do not italicize the issue number or its parenthesis
    • Write the page range after the issue number and a comma, it is not italicized
    • Finish the periodical information with a period, followed by a DOI or URL- if applicable

 

10.2 Books and Reference Works

  • Write out the author or editor in the order they appear in the book. Write as AuthorLastName, AuthorInitial(s)
    • Example: Susan Maitland and Arthur Franklin as Maitland, S., & Franklin, A.
  • Date. Write the year in parenthesis with a period at the end
  • The title of the book. Italicize. Include if it is a specific edition or format, like audiobook. Follow with a period
  • Publisher information. Only include the name of the publisher. Follow with a period
  • DOI or URL

 

Source: American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: the official guide to APA style (7th ed): American Psychological Association.

Reference Source/Catalog Record Bibliographic Citation
Journal Article Psychosocial correlates of oral hygiene behavior in people aged 9 to 19: A systematic review with meta-analysis Scheerman, J.F.M, van Loveren, C., van Meijel, B., Dusseldorp, E., Wartewig, E., Verrips, G.H.W., Ket, j.C.F., & van Empelen, P. (2016). Psychosocial correlates of oral hygiene behaviour in people aged 9 to 19: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 44(4), 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12224 
Book Mosby's Comprehensive Review of Dental Hygiene Darby, M.K. (2012). Mosby's comprehensive review of dental hygiene. (7th edition). Elsevier/Mosby. 

 

The Purdue Online Writing Lab is another resource you can use for APA citation.

The APA Style Guide is yet another resource for APA citation, created by the organization 

 

In short, the changes are:

  1.   Don't include publisher location
  2. Shorten in-text citation for 3+ authors
  3. Include up to 20 authors in the reference
  4. Format DOIs as URLs
  5. Don't include "Retrieved from" in front of URL
  6. Don't include the format, platform or device for ebooks
  7. Citing Contributors
  8. New examples for online source types
  9. Use singular "they" as a gender-neutral pronoun
  10. Use descriptive phrases instead of labels
  11. Use exact age ranges
  12. More flexibility in font choices
  13. Simplified running head
  14. Running head is omitted in student papers
  15. Updated heading styles
  16. Use only one space after a period
  17. Use double quotation marks for linguistic examples

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