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Art & Art History

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Citation Help


works cited

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Book Example: 
Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

Webpage Example: 
Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow,

Journal Example:
Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." 
     Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.


Documenting sources for images can be challenging, especially with the variety of new electronic resources now available. Many different style manuals exist. Always ask your class instructor for the style appropriate for the course.

Works of art reproduced in a printed source

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of art work in italics. Date of art work. 
    Institution where artwork is housed (if known), city where housed if 
    not already named. Title of printed source in italics. By Author of printed
    source. Place of publication: publisher, date. Page or plate/figure/slide
    number. Print.


Cassatt, Mary. Mother and Child . Wichita Art Museum. c.1890. American
 1560-1913 . By John Pearce. New York: McGraw, 1964.
     Slide 22. Print.

Works of art reproduced in electronic source

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of art work in italics.  Date of art work. 
     Institution where art work is housed (if known), city where housed if not 
     already named. Database or web site name. Web. Day month year 


Monet, Claude. Meadow with Haystacks at Giverny. 1885. Museum of Fine
     Arts, Boston. ARTstor. Web. 22 October 2004.

  • A bibliography, sometimes referred to as References or Works Cited, is an organized list of sources (e.g., books, journal/magazine articles, Web sites, etc.) consulted in the research process.
  • Each source in the bibliography is represented by a citation that includes the author (if given), title, and publication details of the source.
  • An annotated bibliography is a bibliography with an additional description or evaluation (i.e., annotation) of each source.
The purpose of the annotation is to help the reader evaluate whether the work cited is relevant to a specific research topic or line of inquiry.

General Guidelines

Some annotations are merely descriptive, summarizing the authors' qualifications, research methods, and arguments.  Your professor might also ask you to identify the authors' theoretical frameworks.

Many annotations evaluate the quality of scholarship in a book or article.  You might want to consider the logic of authors' arguments, and the quality of their evidence.  Your findings can be positive, negative, or mixed.

Your professor might also want you to explain why the source is relevant to your assignment.

Generally, annotations should be no more than 150 words (or 4-6 sentences long). They should be concise and well-written. Depending on your assignment, annotations may include some or all of the following information:

  • Main focus or purpose of the work
  • Intended audience for the work
  • Usefulness or relevance to your research topic (or why it did not meet your expectations)
  • Special features of the work that were unique or helpful
  • Background and credibility of the author
  • Conclusions or observations reached by the author
  • Conclusions or observations reached by you

Sample Informative/Descriptive Annotation 

An Informative/descriptive annotation describes the content of the work without judging it. It does point out distinctive features.

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      London, Herbert. "Five Myths of the Television Age." Television Quarterly 
          10(1) Spring 1982: 81-89.

Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: "seeing is believing"; "a picture is worth a thousand words"; and "satisfaction is its own reward." London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He doesn't refer to any previous works on the topic. London's style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader.